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Computer Full-Form started from K

Computer Full-Form started from K

Full Form Of Kbps is

(Kbps) Kilobits Per Second

More About Kbps:
–> kbps stands for kilobits per second. It is a standard unit of data transfer rate. It measures the speed of data transfer over the networks (internet) in terms of kilobits per second, i.e. a measure of bandwidth (amount of data that can be transmitted in a given time) on a data transmission medium. It is widely used in the data communication sector to measure the rate of data transfer. One kbps is equal to 1,000 bits per second. It means 200 kbps can transfer 200,000 bits in one second.

NOTE: kbps is different from KBps. KBps stands for Kilobytes per second. The letter “b” represents bits and letter “B” represents bytes. One byte is equal to the 8 bits. Technically, kbps is the decimal kilobit unit, while KBps is a binary kilobyte unit. So, kbps is spelled with a lowercase “k”.

–> The other standard units to measure the speed of data transfer are Mbps (Megabits per second) and Gbps (Gigabits per second). In terms of measurement, the kbps, Mbps and Gbps are related as shown below;

* 1 kbps = 1000 bits per second

* 1 Mbps = 1000 kilobits per second

* 1 Gbps = 1000 Megabits per second


Computer Full-Form started from L

Computer Full-Form started from L

Full Form Of LAN is

(LAN) Local Area Network

More About LAN:
–> Stands for “Local Area Network” and is pronounced “lan.” A LAN is a network of connected devices that exist within a specific location. LANs may be found in homes, offices, educational institution, or other areas.

–> A LAN may be wired, wireless, or a combination of the two. A standard wired LAN uses Ethernet to connect devices together. Wireless LANs are typically created using a Wi-Fi signal. If a router supports both Ethernet and Wi-Fi connections, it can be used to create a LAN with both wired and wireless devices.

–> Most residential LANs use a single router to create the network and manage all the connected devices. The router acts as the central connection point and enables devices, such as computers, tablets, and smartphones to communicate with each other. Typically, the router is connected to a cable or DSL modem, which provides Internet access to connected devices.

–> A computer may also be the central access point of a LAN. In this setup, the computer acts as a server, providing connected machines with access to files and programs located on the server. It also includes LAN software used to manage the network and connected devices. LAN servers are more common in business and educational networks, since the extra capabilities are not required by most home users. In a server-based LAN, devices may connect directly to the server or indirectly via a router or switch.

NOTE: Multiple LANs may be combined to create a larger LAN. This type of network, which can customized to include specific devices from various networks, is called a virtual LAN or VLAN.


Full Form Of LCD is

(LCD) Liquid Cristal Display

More About LCD:
–> LCD is a flat panel display or video display which uses the light modulating property of liquid crystals. It is used to display images use in many electronic devices available in the market today. LCDs display the arbitrary images and fixed images both. Arbitrary images are the general purpose computer display images and the fixed images are used in digital clocks and calculators etc. It is mostly used as a computer monitor and Television set in the household. It has replaced the old Cathode Rays Tubes (CRTs) and reduces the power consumption.

–> LCD screens are more energy efficient and it can be disposed more safely than CRT. It is always preferred to use in battery powered equipments due to its energy efficiency.

How it works
–> It works on the principle of color emission of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals were discovered in 1888. LCD is an electronically modulated optical device made up of segments filled with liquid crystals. LCDs used liquid crystals and polarized light to display the pictures. When the electric current applied to LCD TVs, there is a large bright light that shines towards the viewer. It creates millions of pixels that generates images.

–> LCDs provide better clarity and efficiency than CRTs. It is also more trendy and fashionable.

LCD is used in devices like:
* Televisions

* Calculators

* Digital clocks

* Computers

* Laptops

* Gaming Devices

* Mobile Phones

* Smart Phones etc.


Full Form Of LED is

(LED) Light Emitting Diode

More About LED:
–> LED stands for Light Emitting Diode. It is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a pn-junction diode which emits light when activated. It is a very important electronic device because it is used in a lot of electrical and electronic devices now a days. It is mostly used in electronic test equipments, TV’s, calculators, watches, radios, etc.

How LED works
–> When a suitable voltage of electricity is applied to the leads, electrons recombines with electron holes and release energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence. The color of LED’s light is determine by the energy band gap of the semiconductor.

–> LED is proved a revolutionary product in the field of light source. Its lamps are very energy efficient, economical and long lasting. As compared to conventional lighting bulbs and fluorescent light sources, it is almost 80% energy efficient.

Benefits of LED
1) Energy efficient
* LED requires very less power. For example, LED TVs are more energy efficient than CRT and LCD TVs.

* LED does not produce heat, so it reduces the cooling loads also.

* LED does not produce buzzing noises and flickers etc.

2) Environment Friendly
* LED lights are non-toxic. It does not contain mercury, lead or cadmium. The enhanced use of LED lights can reduce carbon emission.

3) Long Life
* With proper installation, the LED can be worked for a long span of time with a very low maintenance cost.

4) Maintenance and Safety
* LED needs very low maintenance cost. It also require very low recycling charge.

5) Recyclable
* LED is recyclable with a very low recycling charges.

6) Better Picture Quality
* LED offers better image quality than LCD.

* LEDs have allowed new text, video displays and sensors to be developed. Due to their high switching rates, it can be also useful in advanced communication technology.


Full Form Of LDAP is

(LDAP) Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

More About LDAP:
–> Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is a client/server protocol used to access and manage directory information. It reads and edits directories over IP networks and runs directly over TCP/IP using simple string formats for data transfer. It was originally developed as a front end to X.500 Directory Access Protocol.

–> Lightweight Directory Access Protocol is also known as RFC 1777.

–> LDAP was initially created by Tim Howes of the University of Michigan, Steve Kille of Isode Limited and Wengyik Yeong of Performance Systems International, circa 1993. It is based on the X.500 standard, but is simple and easily adapts to meet custom needs whose specifications are defined in the Requests for Comments (RFCs).

–> LDAP is also cross-platform and standards-based. Thus, the applications are not concerned about the server type hosting the directory. The LDAP servers are easy to install, maintain and optimize. The LDAP server process queries and updates the LDAP information directory.

–> LDAP servers are capable of replicating data either through push or pull methods. The technology related to replication is easily configured and built-in. LDAP permits secured delegate read and modification authority based on needs using Microsoft Access control lists. No security checks are performed at the user application level. This is all done directly through the LDAP directory. LDAP does not define how programs work on the client server side, but does define the language used by client programs to talk to servers. LDAP servers range from small servers for workgroups to large organizational and public servers.

–> LDAP directory servers stores data hierarchically. One of the techniques to partition the directory is to use LDAP referrals, which enable users to refer LDAP requests to a different server.

–> The central concept of LDAP is the information model, which deals with the kind of information stored in directories and the structuring of information. The information model revolves around an entry, which is a collection of attributes with type and value. Entries are organized in a tree-like structure called the directory information tree. The entries are composed around real world concepts, organization, people and objects. Attribute types are associated with syntax defining allowed information. A single attribute can enclose multiple values within it. The distinguished names in LDAP are read from bottom to top. The left part is called the relative distinguished name and the right part is the base distinguished name.

–> Many vendors of server products and directory clients support LDAP. Companies with LDAP intentions include IBM, AT&T, Sun and Novell. Eudora and Netscape communicator also support LDAP. Government agencies and large universities also use LDAP servers for storing and organizing information.


Full Form Of Li-on is

(Li-on) Lithium-Ion

More About Li-on:
–> Short for lithium-ion and sometimes abbreviated as Li-on, Li-ion is a fragile technology requiring a protector circuit. It is used where very high energy density is needed and cost is secondary. Li-ion batteries are more expensive, but perform without the memory issues that affect other types of batteries.

–> Pioneering work for the lithium battery began in 1912 by G. N. Lewis but it was not until the early 1970s that the first non-rechargeable lithium batteries became commercially available. Attempts to develop rechargeable lithium batteries followed in the eighties, but failed due to safety concerns.

–> Lithium is the lightest of all metals, has the greatest electrochemical potential, and provides the largest energy content. Rechargeable batteries using lithium metal as an electrode are capable of providing both high voltage and excellent capacity, resulting in an extraordinary energy density.

–> After much research during the eighties, it was found that occasional shorts from lithium dendrites could cause thermal run-away. The cell temperature approaches the melting temperature of lithium, which results in violent reactions. A large quantity of rechargeable lithium batteries sent to Japan had to be recalled in 1991 after a battery in a cellular phone exploded and inflicted burns to a man’s face.

–> With an inherent instability of lithium metal, research shifted to a non-metallic lithium battery using lithium ions from chemicals such as LiCoO2 (lithium-cobalt dioxide). Although slightly lower in energy density than with lithium metal, the Li-ion is safe, provided certain precautions are met when charging and discharging. In 1991, Sony commercialized the Li-ion and is presently the largest supplier of this battery.


what is LPT is

(LPT) Line Printer Terminal

More About LPT:
–> Short for line printer terminal, LPT is used by IBM compatible computers as an identification for the parallel port, such as LPT1, LPT2, or LPT3. The LPT port is commonly required when installing a printer on an IBM compatible computer. The majority of all computers utilize LPT1 and do not have an option for another LPT port unless additional ports are added to the computer.

Where is the LPT (parallel) port on a computer?
–> The LPT port or parallel port is found on the back of the computer and is part of the motherboard.


Full Form Of LPX is

(LPX) Low Profile eXtension

More About LPX:
–> LPX (Low Profile eXtension) is a motherboard form factor developed by Western Digital in 1987, when it was making motherboards, that was used in the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s. An LPX motherboard is 9″ wide x 13″ deep, uses a riser card, and has different placement of the video, parallel, serial, and PS/2 ports when compared to other motherboards. Below is a picture of a Packard Bell LPX motherboard, as can be seen this motherboard has one large brown slot for the riser card.

–> Using a riser card allowed the expansion cards to be installed parallel to the motherboard, which is why the LP in LPX stands for “Low Profile.” The low profile allowed computers using this motherboard to be much slimmer than computers using a Baby-AT motherboard.

–> The LPX motherboard was not the only motherboard to have a riser card. The NLX motherboard also has a riser card, however, the NLX motherboard actually plugged into the riser card instead of having the riser card on the motherboard.

Read More – Barish Quotes


Computer Full-Form started from M

Computer Full-Form started from M

Full Form Of MAC is

(MAC) Media Access Control Address

More About MAC:
–> MAC stands for Media Access Control Address. It is a hardware identification number that identifies each device connected to a network. The MAC address is embedded into network interface cards (NIC) in your computer such as an Ethernet card or Wi-Fi card, at time of manufacturing by the vendor, so it cannot be changed. So, it is a hardware number of a computer, which is also known as a physical address or a hardware address of a network device.

–> The Network Interface Card (NIC) is a computer circuit card that enables your computer to connect to a network. It converts the data into an electrical signal that can be transmitted over the network. So, in a network, along with an IP address, there is also a hardware address. IP addresses are related to TCP/IP, whereas MAC addresses are associated with the hardware of network adapters. So, MAC is a computer’s unique hardware number, i.e., a unique identifier for an Ethernet or network adapter over a network.

–> There are plenty of networkable devices, and each is required to have a unique MAC address, so there must be many addresses. Accordingly, MAC addresses comprise of six two-digit hexadecimal numbers separated by colons. For example, an Ethernet card can have a MAC address of 0d:00:b1:8e:83:C1. So, it is a 12 digit hexadecimal number, which is a 6-byte binary number and is represented by Colon-Hexadecimal notation.

–> First 6 digits of MAC address provides information about the manufacturer; it is called OUI (Organizational Unique Identifier). The next or last 6 digits identify the Network Interface Controller, which is assigned by the manufacturer. The network automatically recognizes this number, and we don’t need to remember the address. IEEE Registration Authority Committee assigns the MAC prefixes to its registered vendors.

OUI of some famous manufacturers:
* 3C:5A:B4: Google, Inc.

* CC: 46: D6: Cisco

* 3C:D9:2B: Hewlett Packard

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