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Computer Full-Form started from I

Computer Full-Form started from I

Full Form Of IBM is

(IBM) International Business Machines Corporation

More About IBM:
–> IBM stands for International Business Machines. It is a multinational technology and consulting organization which is a trusted brand in IT sector. Its headquarters is in Armonk, New York and its current CEO is Ginni Rometty. The company manufactures computer hardware and software and offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services. Its products can be divided into different categories such as cloud, cognitive, data & analysis, IT infrastructure etc. Its services include Business, Mobility, networking, Resiliency services, security services, technical support services etc. Furthermore, it also offers various enterprise and business solutions.

–> The logo of company “the 8 bar” is designed by Paul Rand. The company is also known as “Big Blue” because of the blue color in its logo and products.

Brief History
–> The company was founded on June 16 1911, by Charles Ranlett Flint as the Computing Tabulating Recording Company (CTR). It was the result of merger of three companies; Tabulating Machine Company, International Time Recording Company and Computing Scale Company.

–> In 1914, Thomas J. Watson, Sr. from the National Cash Register Company joined the CTR.

–> In 1924, the CTR was named as International Business Machines (IBM).

–> In 1953, it introduced the first computer, IBM 701 defense calculator. It was a general purpose electronic computer.

–> In 1957, IBM developed a programming language and named it FORTRAN.

–> In 1933, IBM bought the patents for the electric typewriter and produced an improved version of the typewriter in 1935.

–> In 1956, the company introduced the first hard drive, the 305 RAMAC.

–> In 1967, it introduced floppy disks and changed the way data was saved and moved.

–> In 1970, IBM partnered with American Express and American Airlines and created first airline ticket vending kiosk.

–> In 1972, it created the first ATM, the IBM 2984.

–> IBM introduced the Universal Product Code (UPC) code. The code is the identity of the product and the vendor who sells the product. It was first used in 1974, at a supermarket in Ohio.

–> It developed magnetic strip technology and introduced magnetic strips on credit cards and driving licenses.

–> In 1981, IBM introduced its first personal computer and named it IBM PC.

–> In 2012, it was ranked the second-largest U.S. Company in terms of the number of employees (435,000).

Full Form Of IC is

(IC) Integrated Circuit

More About IC:
–> IC stands for Integrated Circuit. It is a small electronic device made of semiconductor material. It contains various microscopic elements like transistors, diodes, capacitors and resistors. All these elements are interconnected and fabricated as a single unit on a thin sheet of semiconductor material, particularly silicon.

–> ICs are used in a variety of devices like microprocessors, audio equipment, video equipment, mobiles, television sets and automobiles. It is also called as chip or microchip. It was primarily built with an objective of placing as many transistors as possible on a semiconductor chip. The first IC or microchip was developed by Jack Kilby in 1958.

ICs have undergone several generations of developments. These subsequent developments made them contain more transistors and other electronic components and accordingly they can be classified as;

Small Scale Integration (SSI): One to hundred transistors per chip or IC.

Medium Scale Integration (MSI): IC with Hundreds to thousands of transistors.

Large Scale Integration (LSI): IC with thousands to several hundred thousand transistors.

Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI): Hundred thousand to one million transistors per chip or IC.

Ultra-large Scale Integration (ULSI): IC with millions or billions transistors per chip. E.g. computer processor.

An IC can also be classified as; Analogue IC, Digital IC or a combination of both.

Full Form Of IDE is

(IDE) Integrated Development Environment & Integrated Drive Electronics

More About IDE:
–> IDE stands for Integrated Development Environment. It is a programming environment that contains a lot of things in a single package i.e. code editor, compiler, debugger and what you see is what you get (WYCIWYG). It is actually a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development. It combines all the basic tools that developers need to write or test software. This type of environment allows an application developer to write code while compiling, debugging and executing it at the same place. It can be a standalone application or a part of one or more compatible applications.

–> For example: The IDE for developing .NET applications is Microsoft Visual Studio and IDE for developing Java Application is Eclipse, NetBeans, JDeveloper, MyEclipse, BlueJ, RSA etc.

IDE: Integrated Drive Electronics
–> IDE stands for Integrated Drive Electronics. It is a standard interface used for connecting motherboard to storage devices like Hard Discs, CD-ROM/ DVD Drives, HDD etc. IDE is different from SCSI and ESDI as its controllers are on each drive which allows drivers to directly connect to the controller or motherboard. The original IDE had a 16-bit interface that connected two devices to a single ribbon cable.

–> IDE was adopted as a standard by ANSI and named for it as Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA). The first IDE standard was introduced in 1994, it could support data transfer rates of 8.3 Mbps. In 1996, Enhanced IDE was standardized which could support data transfer rates of 16.7 Mbps.

Full Form Of IRQ is

(IRQ) Interrupt Request

More About IRQ:
–> An interrupt request (IRQ) is an asynchronous signal sent from a device to a processor indicating that in order to process a request, attention is required. A hardware IRQ is induced by a hardware peripheral or device request, whereas a software IRQ is induced by a software instruction. Both result in processor status savings, and revert to serving the IRQ using an interrupt handler routine.

–> Interrupts are commonly used to implement computing multitasking and effectively eliminate the requirement for the processor to sample (poll) the lines while waiting for external events.

–> An IRQ is served to the processor by programmable interrupt controllers (PICs), which prioritize and manage the interrupts to the processor. A well-known device in personal computer (PC) architecture is the Intel 8259A PIC, which was later supplanted by the advanced PICs (APICs) but continues to be used today.

–> Interrupts can be level-triggered or edge-triggered. Level-triggered interrupts indicate that the line is held by the device at an active level, triggering the interrupt until it is served. Edge-triggered interrupts indicate that the device triggers the line shortly from level 1 to 0 (or vice versa). The PIC is expected to catch this trigger and service the interrupt.

–> IRQ levels are allocated to devices to indicate their identities. For example, in a PC, IRQ0 through IRQ15 denote the 16 levels associated with the mouse, keyboard, serial port, sound card, floppy disk controller, and the primary/secondary advanced technology attachment (ATA) channels used for hard disk devices.

–> When two devices use the same level, IRQ conflicts occur. Today, USB plug and play (PnP) devices have virtually eliminated this problem.

Full Form Of ISA is

(ISA) Industry Standard Architecture

More About ISA:
–> Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) is a computer bus specification used for 8-bit IBM-compatible systems. An ISA bus provides a basic route for peripheral devices that are attached to a motherboard to communicate with different circuits or other devices that are also attached to the same motherboard.

–> Peripheral component interface (PCI) started replacing the ISA bus in the mid-’90s. New motherboards were manufactured with fewer ISA slots, and preference was given to PCI slots.

–> Initially, an ISA bus was the best option for Intel machines. However, eventually a faster and wider bus was required, and an issue of incompatibility arose. The manufacturers relied on the same ISA bus but added 16-bit characteristics.

–> The new ISA bus was flexible in that it could connect multiple devices. It supported 16-bit peripheral devices. Therefore, five devices with 16-bit interrupt request (IRQ) could be connected at the same time. Also, three additional devices could be connected parallel to five devices with 16-bit IRQ and a 16-bit direct memory access (DMA) channel. The CPU clock speed varied from 16 to 20 MHz.

Full Form Of ISO is

(ISO) International Organization for Standardization

More About ISO:
–> ISO is an independent, non-governmental, non-profitable, worldwide organization which develops and publishes international standards. It provides a standard for products and services. These standards are accepted worldwide and provide a surety that the products and services are safe, reliable and of good quality.

–> ISO is the world’s largest developer of voluntary international standards. Its headquarter is in Geneva in Switzerland and official languages are English, French and Russian. There are 165 member countries around the world as its national standard bodies.

Note: According to ISO, “ISO” is not an abbreviation. This is a word derived from Greek word isos, meaning equal.

What ISO does
–> ISO provides world-class specification for products, services and systems to ensure safety, quality and efficiency.

–> There are more than 19500 international standards published by ISO, which covers every industry, technology, food safety, agriculture and healthcare.

Brief History
–> In 1946, delegates from 25 countries who met at the Institute of Civil Engineers in London decided to establish an international organization to facilitate the international coordination and unification of industrial standards. In February 1947, ISO was founded and officially began its operations.

–> There are more than 19500 international standards published by ISO, which cover every industry, such as technology, food safety, agriculture and healthcare.

This is a list of popular standards of international organization:
ISO 9000: It is used for standardization of quality management.

ISO 10012: It is used to measure management system.

ISO 14000: It is used for standardization of environmental management.

ISO 19011: It provides a guideline to audit management system.

ISO 2768-1: It is used to provide a standard for general tolerance.

ISO 31000: It is a standard for risk management.

ISO 50001: It is a standard for energy management.

ISO 4217: It is used for the standardization of currency codes.

Full-Form Of ISDN is

(ISDN) Integrated Services Digital Network

More About ISDN:
–> Stands for “Integrated Services Digital Network.” ISDN is a telecommunications technology that enables the transmission of digital data over standard phone lines. It can be used for voice calls as well as data transfers.

–> The first ISDN standard was defined in 1988 by the CCITT organziation, which is now the ITU-T (International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee). However, it wasn’t until the 1990s that the service became widely used.

Since the introduction of ISDN, several variants have been standardized, including the following:
* Basic Rate Interface (BRI) – supports two 64 kbps bearer channels (or B channels) for a data transfer rate of 128 kbps.

* Primary Rate Interface (PRI) – supports 30 B channels and two additional channels in a single E1 connection, providing a data transfer rate of 2,048 kbps.

* Always on Dynamic ISDN (AODI) – an consistent ISDN connection that uses the X.25 protocol and supports speeds up to 2 Mbps.

–>ISDN was a common high-end Internet service in the 1990s and early 2000s and was offered by many ISPs as faster alternative to dial-up Internet access. Many businesses and organizations used ISDN service for both Internet access and network connections between locations. In the mid-2000s, DSL and cable serviced began to replace ISDN connections because of their faster speed and lower cost. Today, ISDN is still used in some network connections, but it is rarely used for Internet access.

Full Form Of IT is

(IT) Information Technology

More About IT:
–> IT stands for Information Technology in context of computers. Information Technology uses computers and software to manage information. Information Technology deals with electronic computers and computer software to store, process, convert, protect, transmit and retrieve information securely. In an organization, it includes all physical hardware, operating systems, databases, storage and servers etc. It does not refer to your personal computer or home computing and networking.

The department of Information Technology has some important fields. Following is a list of some fields:
* Software Development
* Software design
* Web development
* Database design
* Data management
* Information security
* Networking
* Web design

IT is a growing field that offers various job opportunities for those with technical skills, knowledge and a bachelor’s degree in an IT-related field. Some of the popular career options or designations in the IT sector are as follows:
* Software Developers
* Network Engineers
* Network Administrators
* Computer Scientists
* Database Administrator
* Computer Programmer

Full Form Of IT is

(IT) Income Tax

More About IT:
–> IT stands for Income Tax. In simple words, it is a tax on the Income, a mandatory payment made to the government. Income Tax is a progressive phenomena used by most of the countries to collect some part of the individual income. Higher income earners pay a higher tax rate as compared to lower income earners, i.e. it varies with the respective taxable income or profits of a person or entity. Central and State Governments take the income taxes from individuals, companies, firms, property etc. to run the country well. It is a major source of funds for the government to fund its activities, programmes and serve the public.

–> Government sets a specific amount of income and everyone whose income exceeds the maximum amount should be chargeable to the income tax at the rate prescribed under the finance act.

Full Form Of I/O is

(I/O) Input/Output

More About I/O:
–> Stands for “Input/Output” and is pronounced simply “eye-oh.” Computers are based on the fundamental idea that every input results in an output. For example, if you are running a word processor program and type a sentence on your keyboard, the text will appear on the screen. The keyboard is an input device and the screen is an output device. You might also print the text using a printer, which is another output device.

–> The computer’s CPU handles all the I/O operations, sending the data it receives to the correct path. The path may be to the video card, to the hard drive, or to the RAM, just to name a few.

–> The ports on the outside of a computer are commonly referred to as “I/O ports” because they are what connect input and output devices to the computer. Software developers use I/O to describe how a program will function, depending on what a user enters. For example, if the use

Full Form Of ICMP is

(ICMP) Internet Control Message Protocol

More About ICMP:
–> Stands for “Internet Control Message Protocol.” When information is transferred over the Internet, computer systems send and receive data using the TCP/IP protocol. If there is a problem with the connection, error and status messages regarding the connection are sent using ICMP, which is part of the Internet protocol.

–> When one computer connects to another system over the Internet (such as a home computer connecting to a Web server to view a website), it may seem like a quick and easy process. While the connection may take place in a matter of seconds, there are often many separate connections that must happen in order for the computers to successfully communicate with each other. In fact, if you were to trace all the steps of an Internet connection using a traceroute command, it might surprise you that Internet connections are successful as often as they are. This is because for every “hop” along the way, the network must be functional and able to accept requests from your computer.

–> In cases where there is a problem with the connection, ICMP can send back codes to your system explaining why a connection failed. These may be messages such as, “Network unreachable” for a system that is down, or “Access denied” for a secure, password-protected system. ICMP may also provide routing suggestions to help bypass unresponsive systems. While ICMP can send a variety of different messages, most are never seen by the user. Even if you do receive an error message, the software you are using, such as a Web browser, has most likely already translated the message into simple (and hopefully less technical) language you can understand.

r presses the space bar key in a game, say “Super Jumper Man,” the character on the screen will jump. Multiply that by several thousand other scenarios of user input and you have yourself a computer game.

Full Form Of ICS is

(ICS) Internet Connection Sharing

More About ICS:
–> Stands for “Internet Connection Sharing.” ICS allows multiple computers to connect to the Internet using the same Internet connection and IP address. For example, several computers in a household can connect to same cable or DSL modem using a router.

–> As long as the router is connected to the modem, every computer connected to the router is also connected to the Internet. Network address translation (NAT) allows the computers to share the same IP address.

–> ICS can also be done using software. Windows 98 and later, as well as Mac OS X, support Internet connection sharing. This allows one system’s network settings to be modified, turning the computer into a gateway. Other computers on the same network can then use that computer’s Internet connection.

–> Windows users can also use programs such as WinGate and WinProxy to achieve the same result. While it is possible to share an Internet connection using software, using hardware (such as a router) for ICS is the easiest and most hassle-free solution.

Full Form Of ICR is

(ICR) Intelligent Character Recognition

More About ICR:
–> Intelligent character recognition (ICR) is a computer-based interpretation of handwritten or printed characters so that they can be transcribed into a standardized format that can be recognized and understood by a computer.

–> ICR and optical character recognition (OCR) have essentially the same meaning. Before these technologies were developed, written text was transformed into digital form by a data entry specialist, who continually typed written text with a keyboard.

–> OCR/ICR technologies have since been substituted for older manual methods.

–> The most common input device for characters in written, nondigital form is a scanner. These characters are processed by a digital signal processing-based (DSP-based) program, which compares characters within a stored database. This process is typically followed by a confirmation process based on a built-in dictionary that suggests matches closest to the entered characters.

–> Today, scanning is the only manual part of the process, and it is much faster than entering characters individually. ICR-based programs have the capacity to achieve high-recognition accuracy exceeding 98 percent. This is the same realized percentage of a data entry specialist, but it is accomplished within a shorter period of time.

Full Form Of IEEE is

(IEEE) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

More About IEEE:
–> IEEE stands for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It is the largest technical professional association dedicated to advancing innovation and technological excellence for the benefit of humanity. It is designed to build industry standards, serve professionals involved in every aspect of electrical, electronic and computing field. It also organizes conferences and provides a platform for publications. IEEE has around 1,000 employees to support its activities. The Management council comprises the Executive Director and senior executives. It manages the IEEE staff operations. As of January 2017, Karen Bartleson is the President and CEO of IEEE.

IEEE focuses in following areas:
* Electrical Engineering

* Electronics & Communication Engineering

* Computer Engineering

* Information Technology

–> IEEE was founded in 1963 by the merger of the two institutes, first is Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) and second is American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE).

–> Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was founded in 1912 and AIEE is founded in 1884. In the beginning, it had 150,000 members, 140,000 of whom were from the United States. By 2010, it had more than 395000 members in 160 countries.


–> IEEE is headquartered in New York in United States of America.

IEEE Standards
–> 802 – LAN/MAN

–> 802.1 – Media access control (MAC)

–> 802.2 – Logical Link Control (LLC)

–> 802.3 – Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD).

–> 802.11 – Wireless Networking “WiFi”

Growth and Globalization
–> Technologies under IEEE are continuously spread across the world and reach into more and more area of people lives. According to records, by the early 21st century, IEEE served its members and their interests with 38 Societies; 130 journals, transactions and magazines; more than 300 conferences annually; and 900 active standards.

Key points
* IEEE is pronounced as Eye Triple E.

* It is a non-profit professional association.

* It works for the benefit of Humanity.

* It is best known for developing standards for computer and electronic industry.

Full Form Of IIS is

(IIS) Internet Information Services

More About IIS:
–> Stands for “Internet Information Services.” IIS is a web server software package designed for Windows Server. It is used for hosting websites and other content on the Web.

–> Microsoft’s Internet Information Services provides a graphical user interface (GUI) for managing websites and the associated users. It provides a visual means of creating, configuring, and publishing sites on the web. The IIS Manager tool allows web administrators to modify website options, such as default pages, error pages, logging settings, security settings, and performance optimizations.

–> IIS can serve both standard HTML webpages and dynamic webpages, such as ASP.NET applications and PHP pages. When a visitor accesses a page on a static website, IIS simply sends the HTML and associated images to the user’s browser. When a page on a dynamic website is accessed, IIS runs any applications and processes any scripts contained in the page, then sends the resulting data to the user’s browser.

–> While IIS includes all the features necessary to host a website, it also supports extensions (or “modules”) that add extra functionality to the server. For example, the WinCache Extension enables PHP scripts to run faster by caching PHP processes. The URL Rewrite module allows webmasters to publish pages with friendly URLs that are easier for visitors to type and remember. A streaming extension can be installed to provide streaming media to website visitors.

–> IIS is a popular option for commercial websites, since it offers many advanced features and is supported by Microsoft. However, it also requires requires a commercial license and the pricing increases depending on the number of users. Therefore, Apache HTTP Server, which is open source and free for unlimited users, remains the most popular web server software.

Full Form Of IMAP is

(IMAP) Internet Message Access Protocol

More About IMAP:
–> Stands for “Internet Message Access Protocol” and is pronounced “eye-map.” It is a method of accessing e-mail messages on a server without having to download them to your local hard drive. This is the main difference between IMAP and another popular e-mail protocol called “POP3.” POP3 requires users to download messages to their hard drive before reading them.

–> The advantage of using an IMAP mail server is that users can check their mail from multiple computers and always see the same messages. This is because the messages stay on the server until the user chooses to download them to his or her local drive. Most webmail systems are IMAP based, which allows people to access to both their sent and received messages no matter what computer they use to check their mail.

–> Most e-mail client programs such as Microsoft Outlook and Mac OS X Mail allow you to specify what kind of protocol your mail server uses. If you use your ISP’s mail service, you should check with them to find out if their mail server uses IMAP or POP3 mail. If you enter the wrong protocol setting, your e-mail program will not be able to send or receive mail.

Full Form Of IP is

(IP) Internet Protocol

More About IP:
–> IP stands for Internet Protocol which refers to the name or label given to every device that communicates through each other over a computer network. It consists of 32-bit number. IP address has two versions, IPv4 and IPv6. Both of them define IP address in a different way.

–> There are two reasons to use IP address. One, it is used as local address and second a device can be identified with its IP address by the host interface over a network.

IP Address Can Be Static and Dynamic:
Static: A static IP address is permanent address which will never change and is assigned by an administrator.

Dynamic: A dynamic IP address device changes its IP address every time when accessing internet. It is assigned by the host software.

Unicast IP Address: It transforms information to a specific device over a network.

Broadcast IP Address: It is used to deliver information to all the computers on a given subnet at once.

Multicast IP Address: These are reserved IP addresses and used only for specific group.

Private IP Address: These are local addresses and one IP address can be used by more than one organization. It is absolutely free to use and can?t be routed over the network.

Public IP Address: They are unique and their duplication is not possible hence they need to be bought.

Full Form Of IPCONFIG is

(IPCONFIG) Internet Protocol Configuration

More About IPCONFIG:
–> Internet Protocol Configuration (ipconfig) is a Windows console application that has the ability to gather all data regarding current Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) configuration values and then display this data on a screen. Ipconfig also refreshes the Domain Name System (DNS) and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) settings each time it is invoked. When invoked without additional parameters, ipconfig simply displays the IP address, default gateway and subnet mask for all available adapters.

–> Ipconfig is the the command line counterpart to winipcfg in Windows 95, 98 and ME. This command is mostly useful for computers that are set to obtain an IP address automatically, as it allows users to check which address is assigned by the DHCP or other configuration protocols.

–> In Mac OS X, the ipconfig utility is simply a wrapper for the IPConfiguration agent. This serves to control both DHCP and BootP right from the command line.

–> The syntax for using ipconfig is: ipconfig /parameter_name. For example, “ipconfig /all” displays the entire TCP/IP configuration of all available network adapters.

Full Form Of IPSEC is

(IPSEC) Internet protocol security

More About IPSEC:
–> Internet protocol security (IPsec) is a set of protocols that provides security for Internet Protocol. It can use cryptography to provide security. IPsec can be used for the setting up of virtual private networks (VPNs) in a secure manner.

–> Also known as IP Security.

IPsec involves two security services:
–> Authentication Header (AH): This authenticates the sender and it discovers any changes in data during transmission.

–> Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP): This not only performs authentication for the sender but also encrypts the data being sent.

There are two modes of IPsec:
Tunnel Mode: This will take the whole IP packet to form secure communication between two places, or gateways.

Transport Mode: This only encapsulates the IP payload (not the entire IP packet as in tunnel mode) to ensure a secure channel of communication.

Full Form Of IPX is

(IPX) Internetwork Packet Exchang

More About IPX:
–> Stands for “Internetwork Packet Exchange.” IPX is a networking protocol originally used by the Novell NetWare operating system and later adopted by Windows. IPX was introduced in the 1980s and remained popular through the 1990s. Since then, it has largely been replaced by the standard TCP/IP protocol.

–> IPX is the network layer of the IPX/SPX protocol and SPX is the transport layer. IPX has a similar function to the IP protocol and defines how data is sent and received between systems. The SPX protocol is used to establish and maintain a connection between devices. Together, the two protocols can be used to create a network connection and transfer data between systems.

–> IPX is connectionless, meaning it does not require a consistent connection to be maintained while packets are being sent from one system to another. It can resume the transfer where it left off when a connection is temporarily dropped. IPX only loads when a network connection is attempted, so it does not take up unnecessary resources.

NOTE: In the 1990s, popular video games like Quake, Descent, and WarCraft 2 supported IPX for network gaming. A service like Kali could be used to emulate an IPX connection over the Internet, enabling Internet gaming. Now most video games use TCP/IP or their own proprietary protocols to enable gamers to play online.

Full Form Of IPX/SPX is

(IPX/SPX) Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange

More About IPX/SPX:
–> Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) is a set of network protocols that provide packet switching and sequencing for small and large networks. IPX works at layer three of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model and SPX works at layer 4.

–> IPX/SPX was designed as a Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) alternative. These protocols share similarities but have slight differences.

–> IPX/SPX is compatible with local area networks (LAN) or private networks and different communication protocol functions. For example, the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) function is used to route server information, which provides optimal data routing.

–> SPX is connection-oriented and used for routing information and connection-related functions. Like IP, IPX is connectionless and contains end-user data, such as IP addresses.

Full Form Of IRDA is

(IRDA) Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority

More About IRDA:
–> IRDA stands for Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority. It is an agency run by Government of India. It regulates insurance industry in India. The current chairman (as of March, 2017) of IRDA is Mr. T.S. Vijayan.

–> IRDA is headquartered in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (Now in Telangana) since 2001. It was shifted there from Delhi. It was established after passing the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999, by the Government of India.

* IRDA is responsible for making and monitoring the policies of all the insurance companies in India.

* It protects the interests of the policy holders related to settlement of claim, surrender value of policy etc.

* It specifies requisite qualifications, code of conduct and training for insurance intermediaries and agents.

* It specifies code of conduct for surveyors and loss assessors.

* It supervises the functioning of the Tariff Advisory Committee.

* It regulates investment of funds by insurance companies.

* It specifies the percentage of life insurance and general insurance business in the rural or social sector.

* Adjudicates the disputes between insurers and insurance intermediaries.

* Prevents frauds and misspelling of insurance products.

* Ensures speedy settlement of claims.

Insurance Repository
–> It is recently announced and set by Finance Minister of India. It provides a facility to help policy holders to buy and keep insurance policies in electronic form rather than in paper form. Insurance repository will hold the electronic records of insurance policy holders.

Full Form Of IrDA is

(IrDA) Infrared DATA Association

More About IrDA:
–> Infrared Data Association is a group of device manufacturers. It is founded in 1993 by around 50 companies to create standards for infrared data transmission. The devices that conform to IrDA standards are compatible with one another for data transmission.

–> Its main task is to develop standards for transmitting data via infrared light waves. Infrared light is used to transfer data from one device to another device without using a cable or other connecting mediums. You have to just customize those devices with IrDA ports.

–> This technology is now out of use because of the development of Bluetooth.

Full Form Of ISP is

(ISP) Internet Service Provider

More About ISP:
–> ISP stands for Internet Service Provider. It is a company that provides access to the internet and similar services such as Website designing and virtual hosting. For example, when you connect to the Internet, the connection between your Internet-enabled device and the internet is executed through a specific transmission technology that involves the transfer of information packets through an Internet Protocol route.

–> Data is transmitted through different technologies, including cable modem, dial-up, DSL, high speed interconnects. Accordingly, based on the method of data transmission, the Internet access provided by ISPs can be divided into many types, some of which are as follows:

Dial-up Internet access: It is the oldest technology to provide Internet access by modem to modem connection using telephone lines. In this method, the user’s computer is connected to a modem with a telephone line. This method has become outdated today due to slow connection speed. However, in remote areas, this method can be used where the broadband network is not available.

DSL: DSL, which stands for ‘digital subscriber line’ is an advanced version of the dial-up Internet access method. It uses high frequency to execute a connection over the telephone network and allows the internet and the phone connection to run on the same telephone line. This method offers an Asymmetric Digital Subscriber (ADSL), where the upload speed is less than the download speed, and a Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL), which offers equal upload and download speeds. Out of these two, ADSL is more popular among users and is popularly known as DSL.

Wireless Broadband (WiBB): It is a modern broadband technology for Internet access. It allows high-speed wireless internet within a large area. To use this technology, you are required to place a dish on the top of your house and point it to the transmitter of your Wireless Internet Service Provider (WISP).

Wi-Fi Internet: It is the short form for “wireless fidelity,” which is a wireless networking technology that provides wireless high-speed Internet connections using radio waves. To use the internet, you are required to be within the range of wi-fi network. It is commonly used in public places such as hotels, airports, restaurants to provide internet access to customers.

ISDN: It is a short form of Integrated Services Digital Network. It is a telephone system network which integrates a high-quality digital transmission of voice and data over the same standard phone line. It offers a fast upstream and downstream Internet connection speed and allows both voice calls and data transfer.

Ethernet: It is a wired LAN (Local Area Network) where computers are connected within a primary physical space. It enables devices to communicate with each other via a protocol (a set of rules or common network language). It may provide different speeds such as 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps and 10 Gbps.

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