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Computer Full-Form started from F

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Full Form Of FDC is

(FDC) Floppy Disk Controller

More About FDC:
–> A floppy disk controller (FDC) is an electronic chip controller used as an interface between a computer and a floppy disk drive. Modern computers have this chip embedded in the motherboard, whereas they were a separate component when they were originally introduced.

–> A floppy disk controller (FDC) is a specially designed chip that controls the reading and writing functionality of a floppy drive. An FDC can support up to four floppy disk drives at a time. The controller is connected to the system bus of the CPU and appears as a set of I/O ports to the computer. It is usually also linked to a serial bus of the direct memory access (DMA) controller. In an x86 computer, the floppy disk controller uses IRQ 6, whereas interrupt schemes are used on other systems. Data transmission is often done by FDC while in DMA mode.


Full Form Of FPS is

(FPS) Frame Per Second

More About FPS:
–> Stands for “Frames Per Second.” FPS is used to measure frame rate – the number of consecutive full-screen images that are displayed each second. It is a common specification used in video capture and playback and is also used to measure video game performance.

–> On average, the human eye can process 12 separate images per second. This means a frame rate of 12 FPS can display motion, but will appear choppy. Once the frame rate exceeds 12 FPS, the frames appear less discrete and start to blur together. A frame rate of 24 FPS is commonly used for film since it creates a smooth appearance. Many video cameras record in 30 or 60 FPS, which provides even smoother motion.

–> The 60i (60 FPS, interlaced) format was used for NTSC broadcasts and was replaced by the 60p (60 FPS, progressive scan) with HDTV. This means HDTV not only provides a higher resolution than NTSC, but also yields smoother playback. In order to take advantage of higher frame rates, the display on which the video is output must support a refresh rate that is at least as high as the frame rate. That is why most televisions and monitors support refresh rates of at least 60 hertz.

–> FPS is also used to measure the frame rate of video games. The maximum frame rate is generally determined by a combination of the graphics settings and the GPU. For example, if you are running a new game on an old computer, you may have to reduce the quality of the graphics to maintain a high frame rate. If you have a new computer with a powerful video card, you may be able to increase the graphics settings without reducing the FPS.

–> While some games limit the maximum frame rate, it is not uncommon for a powerful GPU to generate over 100 FPS. For a game to be playable without any lag, it helps to make sure the game maintains over 60 FPS even when a lot is happening on the screen. Therefore, it is wise to configure your graphics settings conservatively to avoid choppy gameplay.

NOTE: FPS is also a common abbreviation for “First Person Shooter,” a type of 3D video game that gives you the perspective of the main character.


Full Form Of FPU is

(FPU) Floating Point Unit

More About FPU:
–> Stands for “Floating Point Unit.” An FPU is a processor or part of a processor that performs floating point calculations. While early FPUs were standalone processors, most are now integrated inside a computer’s CPU.

–> Even without an floating point unit, a CPU can handle both integer and floating point (non-integer) calculations. However, integer operations use significantly different logic than floating point operations, which makes it inefficient to use the same processor to handle both types of operations. An FPU provides a faster way to handle calculations with non-integer numbers.

–> Any mathematical operation, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division can be performed by either the integer processing unit or the FPU. When a CPU receives an instruction, it automatically sends it to the corresponding processor. For example, 12 + 5 would be processed as an integer calculation, while 1.0023 x 5.789 would get sent to the FPU. While it is possible for a programmer to write an instruction specifically for either processing unit, it is usually unnecessary.

–> Since integer and floating point performance can vary significantly, most processor benchmarks include both types of operations. Integer calculation speed is typically listed as “integer performance” and is labeled “SPECint” in SPEC benchmarks. FPU calculation speed is often listed as “floating point performance” and can be measured in FLOPS.


Full Form Of FSB is

(FSB) Front Side Bus

More About FSB:
–> Stands for “frontside bus.” The FSB connects the computer’s processor to the system memory (RAM) and other components on the motherboard. These components include the system chipset, AGP card, PCI devices, and other peripherals. Because the FSB serves as the main path from the processor to the rest of the motherboard, it is also called the “system bus.”

–> The speed of the frontside bus is measured in Megahertz or Gigahertz, just like the processor. Most computers’ processors run faster than their system buses, so the FSB speed is typically a ratio of the processor speed. For example, a Pentium 4 processor that runs at 2.4 GHz may have an FSB speed of only 400 MHz. The CPU to FSB ratio would be 6:1. A Power Mac G5, however, with a 2.0 GHz processor, has a 1.0 GHz frontside bus. Therefore, its CPU to FSB ratio is 2:1.

–> The smaller the ratio, the more efficiently the processor can work. Therefore, faster frontside bus speeds lead to faster overall performance. When the CPU to FSB ratio is high, the processor often has to wait for data to be sent out over the system bus before getting new data to process. For this reason, the FSB can be a bottleneck in a computer’s performance. So if you are looking for a fast computer, don’t just check the processor speed, but find out what the frontside bus speed is as well.


Full Form Of FORTRAN is

(FORTRAN) FORmula TRANslation

More About FORTRAN:
–> FORTRAN is the first high level programming language developed by John Backus in 1957. It was basically designed to write programs for high-performance computing and is mainly suited for numeric computing scientific computing and scientific applications that involve extensive mathematical computations. The main motive behind its designing was to translate math formulas into code.

–> Before the invention of FORTRAN, programmers used assembly/machine code to develop a program which was excessively difficult and time consuming. This led to the invention of FORTRAN which was simple to learn, machine independent, makes mathematical calculations easy, and is suitable for all type of applications. Since it was so easier to code, programmers were able to write their programs 500% faster in FORTRAN than the earlier ones.

–> FORTRAN IV and FORTRAN 77 are the most common versions of FORTRAN. FORTRAN IV became a USASI standard in 1966 and FORTRAN 77 was approved by ANSI in 1978. In the early 1990s, a new ISO and ANSI standard for FORTRAN, called FORTRAN 90 was developed.

Features
–> Some of the key features of this language are as follows:

Simple language: Easy to learn and understand.

Machine independent: A program can be transported from one machine to another machine.

Expresses complex mathematical functions: It offers various natural ways to express complex mathematical functions.

Efficient execution: Only around 20% decrease in efficiency as compared to assembly or machine code.

Storage allocation: It allows programmers to control the allocation of storage.

Freedom in code layout: The programmers don’t need to layout code in rigidly defined columns unlike assembly or machine language.


Full Form Of FTP is

(FTP) File Transfer Protocol

More About FTP:
–> FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. FTP is a standard network protocol used to transfer files between computers (a client and server) over a TCP/IP network. It is a function of Application layer and built on client-server architecture. Client controls the conversation, while server transmits the file content. Browser acts as a client and starts the conversation by making some request on the server. Through FTP, a client can remove, download, delete, or upload files on a server.

How FTP Works

–> FTP works in the same way as HTTP and SMTP. Users provide authentication by signing in. Although, some servers work as Anonymous FTP means they provide their data without log in. When a client transfers a file to the server is called “Uploading” and server file transfer to client is called “Downloading”. Thus, it is generally used to download files from a server over the internet and to upload files to a server using internet.

Active and Passive Connection Mode

–> It works in a passive or active mode. In active mode, client initiates a request and server replies back via connecting data and transferring data. In passive mode, server uses command channel to send information to the client. Passive mode works well across Firewall and Network Address Translation (NAT) gateways.

–> Nowadays, HTTP is mostly used over FTP, whereas, FTP is still being used to transfer some files like in building a website, to download new applications, via web browsers.

History

–> The original FTP specification was written by Abhay Bhushan. It was published as RFC 114 on 16 April, 1971. In June 1980, it was replaced by RFC 765. The current specification is RFC 959. The first FTP applications were depended on DOS command prompt. Later, various graphical user interface (GUI) clients have been developed to allow user to upload and download file with ease.

Commonly Used FTP Clients

–> FTP client is software designed to transfer files between computers using internet. Some FTP clients are given below:

FileZila: It is a popular FTP client that is freely available for Windows, Macintosh and Linux users.

Fire FTP: It is a plug-in for the popular Firefox web browser. It can be used as a standalone FTP program.

Dreamweaver: It can be purchased from Adobe. It a design program that has FTP access as one of its features.


(FAT) File Allocation Table

More About FAT:
–> The main disadvantage of linked list allocation is that the Random access to a particular block is not provided. In order to access a block, we need to access all its previous blocks.

–> File Allocation Table overcomes this drawback of linked list allocation. In this scheme, a file allocation table is maintained, which gathers all the disk block links. The table has one entry for each disk block and is indexed by block number.

–> File allocation table needs to be cached in order to reduce the number of head seeks. Now the head doesn’t need to traverse all the disk blocks in order to access one successive block.

–> It simply accesses the file allocation table, read the desired block entry from there and access that block. This is the way by which the random access is accomplished by using FAT. It is used by MS-DOS and pre-NT Windows versions.

Tip: Today, later versions of Microsoft Windows, such as Windows XP, Vista, 7, and 10, are using NTFS and not FAT.

FAT8: The oldest FAT, FAT8 was used on 8-inch floppies with the 8086 processor.

FAT12: A File Allocation Table that uses 12-bit binary system that was derived from FAT8. A hard drive formatted using FAT12 can use a maximum of approximately 16,736,256 volume size, and today is no longer used. If your computer is running Windows 95 or above and fdisk displays FAT12, your hard drive is corrupt, bad, or has a virus.

FAT16: FAT utilizing a 16-bit binary system. Used with Windows 3.x to Windows 95.

FAT32: Enhanced File Allocation Table utilizing a 28-bit binary system, first used in Windows 95 OSR2 and Windows 98, that saves disk space by using 4 k cluster.

Advantages
* Uses the whole disk block for data.

* A bad disk block doesn’t cause all successive blocks lost.

* Random access is provided although its not too fast.

* Only FAT needs to be traversed in each file operation.

Disadvantages
* Each Disk block needs a FAT entry.

* FAT size may be very big depending upon the number of FAT entries.

* Number of FAT entries can be reduced by increasing the block size but it will also increase Internal Fragmentation.


Full Form Of FDD is

(FDD) Floppy Disk Drive

More About FDD:
–> A floppy disk drive, also called FDD or FD for short, is a computer disk drive that enables a user to save data to removable diskettes. Although 8″ disk drives were first made available in 1971, the first real disk drives used were the 5 1/4″ floppy disk drives, which were later replaced with the 3 1/2″ floppy disk drives.

–> A 5 1/4″ floppy disk was capable of storing between 360 KB and 1.2 MB of data, and the 3 1/2″ floppy disk was capable of storing between 360 KB and 1.44 MB of data. For both floppy disk sizes, the data storage limit was dependent on two factors.

1. Single or double sided disk
2. Regular or high density disk

What replaced floppy diskettes and floppy drives?

–> Today, due to their extremely limited capacity, computers no longer come equipped with floppy disk drives. This technology has largely been replaced with CD-R, DVD-R, and flash drives.


Full Form Of FRU is

(FRU) Field Replaceable Unit

More About FRU:
–> Field-Replaceable Unit, an FRU is an item that can be replaced or sent out on the field. In other words, the part that needs to be replaced does not need to be serviced through the company or a service center.


Full Form Of FQDN is

(FQDN) Fully Qualified Domain Name

More About FQDN:
–> A fully qualified domain name (FQDN) contains both a host name and a domain name. For a landing page, the fully qualified domain name usually represents the full URL or a major portion of the top-level address.

–> In looking at a fully qualified domain name, the host name typically comes before the domain name. The host name represents the network or system used to deliver a user to a certain address or location. The domain name represents the site or project that the user is accessing.

–> One example is the use of various networks to access educational websites. Typically, the domain name will consist of the identifier for a specific school’s web domain, along with the top-level .edu suffix. For example, the domain name for America University would be americauniversity.edu. The host name would consist of either “www” where the global internet is the host, or some proprietary network name that represents the host – for example, if the school uses a custom internal network called “myDictionary” then “myDictionary” would be the host name.

–> In connecting to a host, using the fully qualified domain name shows where the user wants to go. A DNS server can resolve the host name to an IP address. Although there is some syntactical tolerance built into the use of a fully qualified domain name, generally, a user can have errors or problems if the domain name is not clearly and completely entered.


Computer Full-Form started from G

Computer Full-Form started from G

Full Form Of GB is

(GB) GigaBytes

More About GB:
–> A gigabyte is 109 or 1,000,000,000 bytes.

–> One gigabyte (abbreviated “GB”) is equal to 1,000 megabytes and precedes the terabyte unit of measurement. While a gigabyte is technically 1,000,000,000 bytes, in some cases, gigabytes are used synonymously with gibibytes, which contain 1,073,741,824 bytes (1024 x 1,024 x 1,024 bytes).

–> Gigabytes, sometimes abbreviated “gigs,” are often used to measure storage capacity. For example, a standard DVD can hold 4.7 gigabytes of data. An SSD might hold 256 GB, and a hard drive may have a storage capacity of 750 GB. Storage devices that hold 1,000 GB of data or more are typically measured in terabytes.

–> RAM is also usually measured in gigabytes. For example, a desktop computer may come with 16 GB of system RAM and 2 GB of video RAM. A tablet may only require 1 GB of system RAM since portable apps typically do not require as much memory as desktop applications.

Bit: A bit is a value of either a 1 or 0 (on or off).

Nibble: A nibble is 4 bits.

Byte: Today, a byte is 8 bits.

Kilobyte (KB): A kilobyte is 1,024 bytes.

Megabyte (MB): A megabyte is 1,048,576 bytes or 1,024 kilobytes.

Gigabyte (GB): A gigabyte is 1,073,741,824 (230) bytes. 1,024 megabytes, or 1,048,576 kilobytes.

Terabyte (TB): A terabyte is 1,099,511,627,776 (240) bytes, 1,024 gigabytes, or 1,048,576 megabytes.

Petabyte (PB): A petabyte is 1,125,899,906,842,624 (250) bytes, 1,024 terabytes, 1,048,576 gigabytes, or 1,073,741,824 megabytes.

Exabyte (EB): An exabyte is 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 (260) bytes, 1,024 petabytes, 1,048,576 terabytes, 1,073,741,824 gigabytes, or 1,099,511,627,776 megabytes.

Zettabyte (ZB): A zettabyte is 1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 (270) bytes, 1,024 exabytes, 1,048,576 petabytes, 1,073,741,824 terabytes, 1,099,511,627,776 gigabytes, or 1,125,899,910,000,000 megabytes.

Yottabyte (YB): A yottabyte is 1,208,925,819,614,629,174,706,176 (280) bytes, 1,024 zettabytes, 1,048,576 exabytes, 1,073,741,824 petabytes, 1,099,511,627,776 terabytes, 1,125,899,910,000,000 gigabytes, or 1,152,921,500,000,000,000 megabytes.

Is there anything bigger than a yottabyte?
–> As of 2018, there are no approved standard sizes for anything bigger than a yottabyte. However, the two standards that have been proposed are the hellabyte or brontobyte.


Full Form Of GBps is

(GBps) GigaBytes Per Second Or GigaBits Per Second

More About GBps:
–> Stands for “Gigabits per second.” 1Gbps is equal to 1,000 Megabits per second (Mbps), or 1,000,000,000 bits per second. Gbps is commonly used to measure data transfer speeds between hardware devices.

–> For many years, data transfer speeds were only measured in Mbps and Kbps. However, modern hardware interfaces can now transfer data over one gigabit per second, which makes Gbps a necessary unit of measurement. Examples of these interfaces include SATA 3 (6Gbps), USB 3.0 (5Gbps), and Thunderbolt (10Gbps). Additionally, Gigabit Ethernet can transfer data up to 1Gbps.

NOTE: The lowercase “b” is Gbps indicates it stands for “Gigabits” rather than “Gigabytes.” Since one byte equals eight bits, 1GBps is equal to 8Gbps. While storage capacity is typically measured in bytes, data transfer speeds are typically measured in bits. Therefore, Gbps is much more commonly used than GBps.


Full Form Of GHz is

(GHz) Gigahertz

More About GHz:
–> One gigahertz is equal to 1,000 megahertz (MHz) or 1,000,000,000 Hz. It is commonly used to measure computer processing speeds. For many years, computer CPU speeds were measured in megahertz, but after personal computers eclipsed the 1,000 Mhz mark around the year 2000, gigahertz became the standard measurement unit. After all, it is easier to say “2.4 Gigahertz” than “2,400 Megahertz.”

–> While gigahertz is most commonly used to measure processor speed, it can also measure the speed of other parts of the computer, such as the RAM and backside cache. The speed of these components, along with other parts of the computer, also impact the computer’s overall performance. Therefore, when comparing computers, remember the number of gigahertz is not the only thing that matters.


Full Form Of GUI is

(GUI) Graphical USer Interface

More About GUI:
–> GUI stands for Graphical User Interface. It refers to an interface that allows one to interact with electronic devices like computers and tablets through graphic elements. It uses icons, menus and other graphical representations to display information, as opposed to text-based commands. The graphic elements enable users to give commands to the computer and select functions by using mouse or other input devices.

–> The programs which run under a GUI has a specific set of graphic elements so that after learning a specific interface, a user can use these programs without learning new commands.

–> Xerox 8010 Information system was the first GUI-centric computer operating model. It was developed at Xerox PARC by Alan Kay, Douglas Engelbart and their associates.

–> As of 2014, the most popular GUIs are Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. And, if we talk about mobile devices, the Apple’s IOS and Google’s Android Interface are the widely used GUIs.

Basic Components of a GUI
Pointer: It is a symbol that appears on the display screen. It can be moved to select commands and objects.

Pointing device: It allows you move the pointer and select objects on the screen, e.g. mouse or trackball.

Icons: It refers to small images on the display screen that represent commands, files, windows etc. Using pointer and pointing device, you can execute these commands.

Desktop: It is the display screen that contains the icons.

GUI KEY Benefits
* It allows you to place more information within a program.

* The graphics allow users to use complex programs with greater ease.

* It saves time as you do not need to edit configurations manually.

* You can easily memorize the tasks (point-and-click).

* Helps create user-friendly software with a point-and-click interface.


Full Form Of GPRS is

(GPRS) General Packet Radio Service

More About GPRS:
–> GPRS stands for General Packet Radio Service. It is a packet oriented wireless data communication service for mobile communications on 2G and 3G cellular communication systems. It is non-voice, high speed packet switching technology intended for GSM networks.

–> It is based on a modulation technique called Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK). To enable GPRS on a GSM or TDMA network, we are required to add two core modules: the Gateway GPRS Service Node (GGSN) and the Serving GPRS Service Node (SGSN).

What GPRS does
–> GPRS can be used to provide connections on the basis of internet protocols that support a wide variety of enterprises as well as commercial applications.

Benefits of GPRS

–> It provides higher data transfer speed than fixed telecommunication networks. Its optimum speed is 171.2 kbps, almost three times quicker than fixed-telecommunication speed.

–> It provides instant connection and immediate data transfer.

–> It is very cost-effective.

–> It has innovative and superior applications. It provides internet applications over mobile and also facilitates Web browsing, IM messages, E- commerce etc.

What is needed to use GPRS?

–> An application with a GPRS modem

–> A GSM/GPRS network

–> A SIM card with GPRS service

–> A remote station with access to the internet or the GPRS network

–> GPRS is considered as 2.5G technology because it is more advanced than standard 2G digital technology, but does not meet the requirements of 3G technology.


Full Form Of GSM is

(GSM) Global System for Mobile communication

More About GSM:
–> GSM stands for Global System for Mobile communication. It is a standard developed by European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe protocols for second generation (2G) digital cellular networks. It was a replacement for the first generation (1G) cellular networks. The idea of developing GSM originated from a cell-based mobile radio system at the Bell Laboratories in the early 1970s.

–> GSM is an open, digital cellular radio network operating in over 200 countries worldwide. It uses narrowband time division multiple access (TDMA) technology. It covers almost complete Western Europe and growing in America and Asia. It is not only used for voice calls, it can also be used for data computing and sending text messages. A user can connect his GSM-enabled phone with his laptop to send or receive e-mails, faxes, browse internet, check security etc.

The GSM standard operates on three different frequencies which are as follows:
900 MHz: It was used by the original GSM system.

1800 MHz: It was used to support the growing number of subscribers.

1900 MHz: It is mainly used in the US.

Data applications supported by GSM
–> GSM provides following functionalities when you connect your GSM phone with a computer system.

Internet: GSM provides the most ubiquitous and robust wireless data connectivity to access the internet.

Mobile Fax: With GSM, you can send and receive faxes to any place where GSM service is available.

Secured LAN access: GSM provides secured access for corporate LAN. It encrypts the air links and provides additional security for confidential e-mails and faxes.

Advantages of GSM
–> Since GSM service is obtained over 200 countries, so it provides worldwide roaming for its clients to roam throughout the world.

–> GSM is extremely secured because its devices and facilities cannot be easily duplicated.

–> It has an extensive coverage in all over the world.

–> Clear voice calls and efficient use of spectrum.

–> Compatible with wide range of handsets and accessories.

–> Advanced features such as short messages, caller ID, Call hold, Call forwarding etc.

–> Compatible with Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and other telephone company services.

Disadvantages of GSM
–> The biggest disadvantage of GSM is that multiple users share the same bandwidth. This may cause interference and due to interference bandwidth limitation occurs.

–> The other disadvantage of GSM is that it may cause electronic interference. That is the reason why sensitive locations like hospitals and airplanes require cell phone to be turned off otherwise it can create interference with the equipment of hospitals and airplanes.

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