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Computer Full-Form started from E

Computer Full-Form started from E

Full Form Of ECC is

(ECC) Error Correction Code

More About ECC:
–> Error correction code (ECC) checks read or transmitted data for errors and corrects them as soon as they are found. ECC is similar to parity checking except that it corrects errors immediately upon detection. ECC is becoming more common in the field of data storage and network transmission hardware, especially with the increase of data rates and corresponding errors.

Error correction code is applied to data storage via the following steps:
* When a data byte or word is stored in RAM or peripheral storage, a code-specifying bit sequence is estimated and stored. Each fixed number of bits per word has an additional fixed number of bits to store this code.
* When the byte or word is called for reading, a code for the retrieved word is calculated according to the original algorithm and then compared to the stored byte’s extra fixed bits.
* If the codes match, the data is error free and is forwarded for processing.
* If the codes do not match, the changed bits are caught through a mathematical algorithm and the bits are immediately corrected.

–> Data is not verified during its storage period, but is tested for errors when it is requested. If required, the error correction phase follows detection. Frequent recurring errors at the same storage address indicate a permanent hardware error. In this case, the system sends the user a message, which is logged to record the error location(s).


(EDO) Extended Data Out

More About EDO:
–> Alternatively referred to as hyper page mode memory, EDO is short for Extended Data Out and is a type of memory developed in 1995 by Micron that was first used with Pentium computers. EDO allows a CPU to access memory 10 to 15-percent faster the compatible Fast Page memory by not turning off the data output drivers after the memory has removed the column address. An upgraded variation of EDO memory is BEDO, although it was never widely used.


Full Form Of EEPROM is

(EEPROM) Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

More About EEPROM:
–> Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM) is a stable, non-volatile memory storage system that is used for storing minimal data quantities in computer and electronic systems and devices, such as circuit boards. This data may be stored, even without a permanent power source, as device configuration or calibration tables.

–> If storing higher volumes of data that is static (like in USB drives), certain types of EEPROM (like flash memory) are more cost-effective than conventional EEPROM devices.

–> EEPROM, with the help of an electric field, is eraseable and reprogrammable, but with a shorter lifetime. This means that it only may be reprogrammed tens to hundreds of thousands of times. This is far more limited than modern EEPROM, which may be reprogrammed a million times. Additionally, to perform a rewrite, EEPROM chips must be completely erased, unlike other read-only memory (ROM) models.

The following are the primary electrical interface categories for EEPROM devices:
Serial Bus: Serial EEPROM generally functions in three different phases – Address Phase, Data Phase and OP-Code Phase. Most familiar types of serial interface are Microwire, SPI, 1-Wire, I²C and UNI/O. Parallel Bus: A parallel EEPROM device usually includes a data bus of eight bits and a wide enough address bus for total memory handling. The majority of devices include write-protect and chip select pins. Many microcontrollers also include built-in parallel EEPROM.
–> EEPROM is mainly used in devices (like digital potentiometers, digital temperature sensors and real-time clocks) to save calibration or similar data that is required when the power is switched off or removed.
–> EEPROMs are recognized as arrays of floating gate transistors.


Full Form Of EPROM is

(EPROM) Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

More About EPROM:
–> Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory, EPROM is a non-volatile memory chip that was invented by Dov Frohman in 1971 while at Intel that can only be read. If exposed to ultraviolet light, an EPROM can be reprogrammed if needed, but otherwise does not accept or save any new data. Hardware manufactures use EPROM when it may be needed that the data contained on the EPROM needs to be changed. An EPROM chip is distinguishable by a small quartz crystal (not glass) circle window that exposes the chip so that can be reprogrammed. The picture on this page is an example of an Intel 8048 made by NEC and is an example of an EPROM chip.

–> Today, EPROM chips are not used in computers and have been replaced by EEPROM chips.

Difference between EPROM & EEPROM

EPROM
* EPROM stands for Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory.
* In EPROM, ultraviolet (UV) light is used to erase the content.
* We have to remove the EPROM chip from the computer for erasing and reprogramming of the data.
* An EPROM has a transparent quartz crystal window at the top.
* EPROM is an older technology.
EEPROM
* EEPROM stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only memory.
* In EEPROM, the data is erased using an electrical signal.
* There is no requirement of removing the chip from the computer for erasing and reprogramming of the data.
* EEPROM completely encased in an opaque plastic case.
* An EEPROM is modern technology.


Full Form Of EMAIL is

(EMAIL) Electronic Mail

More About EMAIL:

NOTE: Email was originally written “e-mail,” but is now more commonly written as “email” without the dash.

–> Email, short for “electronic mail,” is one of the most widely used features of the Internet, along with the web. It allows you to send and receive messages to and from anyone with an email address, anywhere in the world.

–> Email uses multiple protocols within the TCP/IP suite. For example, SMTP is used to send messages, while the POP or IMAP protocols are used to retrieve messages from a mail server. When you configure an email account, you must define your email address, password, and the mail servers used to send and receive messages. Fortunately, most webmail services configure your account automatically, so you only need to enter your email address and password. However, if you use an email client like Microsoft Outlook or Apple Mail, you may need to manually configure each account. Besides the email address and password, you may also have to enter the incoming and outgoing mail servers and enter the correct port numbers for each one.

–> The original email standard only supported plain text messages. Eventually, email evolved to support rich text with custom formatting. Today, email supports HTML, which allows emails to be formatted the same way as websites. HTML email messages can include images, links, and CSS layouts. You can also send files or “email attachments” along with messages. Most mail servers allow you to send multiple attachments with each message, but they limit the total size. In the early days of email, attachments were typically limited to one megabyte, but now many mail servers support email attachments that are 20 megabytes in size or more.

Email Netiquette

–> When composing an email message, it is important to use good netiquette. For example, you should always include a subject that summarizes the topic of the email. It is also helpful to begin each message with the recipient’s name and end the message with your name or “signature.” A typical signature includes your name, email address, and/or website URL. A professional signature may include your company name and title as well. Most email programs allow you to save multiple signatures, which you can insert at the bottom of an email.

–> If you want to send an email to multiple recipients, you can simply add each email address to the “To” field. However, if the email is primarily intended for one person, you should place the additional addresses in the “CC” (carbon copy) field. If you are sending an email to multiple people that don’t know each other, it is best to use the “Bcc” (blind carbon copy) field. This hides the email addresses of each recipient, which helps prevent spam.


Full Form Of EBCDIC is

(EBCDIC) Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code

More About EBCDIC:
–> EBCDIC(pronounced “ebb see dick”) is short for extended binary coded decimal interchange code is eight bits, or one byte, wide. This is a coding system used to represent characters-letters, numerals, punctuation marks, and other symbols in computerized text. A character is represented in EBCDIC by eight bit. EBCDIC mainly used on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems. Each byte consists of two nibbles, each four bits wide. The first four bits define the class of character, while the second nibble defines the specific character inside that class.

–> EBCDIC is different from, and incompatible with, the ASCII character set used by all other computers. The EBCDIC code allows for 256 different characters. For personal computers, however, ASCII is the standard. If you want to move text between your computer and a mainframe, you can get a file conversion utility that will convert between EBCDIC and ASCII.

–> EBCDIC was adapted from the character codes used in IBM’s pre electronic PUNCHED CARD machines, which made it less than ideal for modern computers. Among its many inconveniences were the use of non-contiguous codes for the alphabetic characters, and the absence of several punctuation characters such as the square brackets [] used by much modern software.

–> For example, setting the first nibble to all-ones,1111, defines the character as a number, and the second nibble defines which number is encoded. EBCDIC can code up to 256 different characters.

–> There have been six or more incompatible versions of EBCDIC, the latest of which do include all the ASCII characters, but also contain characters that are not supported in ASCII.


Full Form Of EDP is

(EDP) Electronic Data Processing

More About EDP:
–> Electronic Data Processing, is nothing but a synonym for IS (Information Services or systems) or MIS (Management Information Services or systems).

–> It refers to the processing of-commercial data, storing documents, transferring information from paper into digital format with the use of a computer involving electronic communication. It was created with the term DP(data processing). In simple words, it is a process comprising of three stages which are as follows:

Input: The data is entered through input devices like keyboard, digitizer, scanner etc.

Processing: The data is manipulated through software programs that usually include translation, formula, code application, and encryption etc.

Output: The processed data is passed to the user in the form of reports, audio, video etc.


Full Form Of EDSAC is

(EDSAC) Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator

More About EDSAC:
–> Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator, EDSAC is an early British computer considered to be the second stored program electronic computer, after the SSEM. It was created at the University of Cambridge in England, performed its first calculation on May 6, 1949. It also has the distinction of being the first computer to run a graphical computer game, an implementation of tic-tac-toe named “OXO.”


Full Form Of ENIAC is

(ENIAC) Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer

More About ENIAC:
–> ENIAC stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. It is believed to be the world’s first operational electronic digital computer developed in the United States by Army Ordnance to calculate ballistic firing tables to help US troops during World War II. These firing tables enabled the army to predict the target where a shell would hit. It allowed troops to hit their targets more precisely or dodge incoming shells.

–> It was the world’s first general-purpose electronic computer, which was designed to be a modular computer made of separate panels that perform separate functions and run only on electronic components without having any mechanical part to slow it down.

–> ENIAC’s weight was around 30 tons and was spread over an area of 1800 square feet. The main components of the ENIAC include:
* 18,000 vacuum tubes
* 15,00 relays
* Resistors
* Capacitors
* Inductors

–> Furthermore, it had 20 single-number accumulators as primary functional units along with special units for division, multiplication, and square roots. So, it was not only used by the army but was also suitable for weather prediction, atomic-energy calculations, thermal ignition, cosmic-ray studies, wind-tunnel design, etc. Later, it became obsolete when there was a need for faster computing speeds over time.


Full Form Of EV-DO is

(EV-DO) Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data Only

More About EV-DO:
–> Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data Only, EV-DO is wireless data radio signal that transmits over a bandwidth of 1.25 MHz. These signals can transfer data at a rate between 153 Kbps and 2.4 Mbps depending on the revision. This technology is often used for broadband Internet access on cell phones and other devices such as the Amazon Kindle.


Full Form Of EPP is

(EPP) Enhanced Parallel Port

More About EPP:
–> The enhanced parallel port (EPP) is an old, but still widely used, standard input/output (I/O) interface that connects peripheral devices, such as a printer or a scanner, to a PC. The four standard parallel ports are the parallel port (PS/2), standard parallel port (SPP), EPP and extended capabilities port (ECP).

–> The EPP is quicker than older ports and can transmit more data while allowing channel direction switching. This port is appropriate for portable hard drives, data acquisition and network adapters. The EPP is used mainly for PCs that support eight-bit bidirectional communication at Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus speeds. EPP introduced advanced performance with backward SPP compatibility. The EPP is about 10 times faster than the older port modes.

–> A parallel port was first used in 1981 to provide a physical interface between a PC and a printer. The original parallel port was called the normal port or SPP, and it soon became a de facto standard for most PCs.

–> By 1987, the PS/2 was introduced. This port was a lot faster and had bidirectional port capabilities. The PS/2 could read data from a peripheral device to the host. The bidirectional EPP was developed in 1994 to provide a high-performance interface. This mode was implemented as part of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard. The bidirectional ECP was also introduced in 1994 by Microsoft and Hewlett Packard for use with printers and scanners. It features direct memory access (DMA), first in/first out (FIFO), data compression and channel addressing.

–> The original standard parallel port (SPP) was unidirectional (one direction) and could transfer eight-bit data. The PS/2 parallel port introduced an eight-bit bidirectional data port that was two times faster. Both the SPP and PS/2 transferred data at a rate of 50 to 150 KBps. Each new parallel port design helped improve the performance and speed of data transfer.

–> Both the EPP and ECP support an eight-bit bidirectional port. Usually, EPP is used for newer models of printers and scanners, whereas ECP is used for non-printer peripherals, such as network adapters or disk drives. Although EPP and ECP are quite different, there are modern products that support both EPP and ECP collectively.


Full Form Of EMI is

(EMI) ElectroMagnetic Interference

More About EMI:
–> Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is a phenomenon where one electromagnetic field interferes with another, resulting in the distortion of both fields. This is commonly observed in radios when switching between frequencies and static is heard, as well as on over-the-air TV when the picture becomes distorted because the signal has been distorted.

–> Electromagnetic interference is also known as radio frequency interference (RFI).

–> Electromagnetic Interference is a disturbance in the radio frequency spectrum that affects fields even if their frequencies are not aligned. This is because electromagnetic radiation can still interfere with each other even if they are not on the same frequency, and this is exacerbated by the fact that devices emitting electromagnetic waves have a tendency to also transmit at lower power on harmonic side bands, which is why an FM radio might pick up powerful signals from a nearby CB radio.

–> EMI can be a problem on electronic devices since electronic circuits are very susceptible to EMI because electromagnetic radiation can easily be picked up by any conductor, which is why speakers sometimes make noise when a nearby cell phone is receiving a call or text message. This is because the coil in the speakers is acting like an antenna which captures the EMI emitted by the cell phone.

–> EMI can be a serious problem in critical systems that use radios such as on an airplane, which is why all electronic devices are required to be turned off during takeoff and landing, as they might cause interference with the communication between the pilot and ground control or other critical systems being used by the plane.


Full Form Of EISA is

(EISA) Extended Industry Standard Architecture

More About EISA:
–> Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) is a bus architecture that extends the Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) from 16 bits to 32 bits. EISA was introduced in 1988 by the Gang of Nine – a group of PC manufacturers.

–> EISA was designed to compete with IBM’s Micro Channel Architecture (MCA) – a patented 16 and 32-bit parallel computer bus for IBM’s PS/2 computers. EISA extended the advanced technology (AT) bus architecture and facilitated bus sharing between multiple central processing units (CPU).

–> EISA is also known as Extended ISA.


Full Form Of EIDE is

(EIDE) Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics

More About EIDE:
–> Stands for “Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics.” EIDE is an improved version of the IDE drive interface that provides faster data transfer rates than the original standard. While the original IDE drive controllers supported transfer rates of 8.3 Mbps, EIDE can transfer data up to 16.6 Mbps, which is twice as fast.

–> The term EIDE can be a bit ambiguous, since it technically refers to an ATA standard known as ATA-2 or Fast ATA. Therefore, the terms EIDE, ATA-2, and Fast ATA may be used synonymously. To add to the confusion, EIDE may also refer to the ATA-3 standard, which is similar to ATA-2, but includes additional features. ATA-3 supports the same maximum data transfer rate as ATA-2, but has SMART support and uses a 44 pin connector.

–> While EIDE was the most common drive controller used for many years, it has since been replaced by updated versions of the ATA standard that support Ultra DMA. These include the ATA-4 through ATA-7 standards, which provide data throughput rates from 33 to 133 Mbps. Most modern computers use a completely new standard called “Serial ATA,” or SATA, which supports even faster transfer rates.


Full Form Of ECP is

(ECP) Extended Capabilities Port

More About ECP:
–> Extended Capabilities Port, ECP was developed by Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard and announced in 1992 as an additional enhanced parallel port. Although ECP requires an additional DMA channel that can cause resource conflicts, it is capable of transmitting of up to 2 MBps and had a FIFO buffer of up to 16-bytes.


Full Form Of ECC is

(ECC) Error Correction Code

More About ECC:
–> Error correction code (ECC) checks read or transmitted data for errors and corrects them as soon as they are found. ECC is similar to parity checking except that it corrects errors immediately upon detection. ECC is becoming more common in the field of data storage and network transmission hardware, especially with the increase of data rates and corresponding errors.

Error correction code is applied to data storage via the following steps:
* When a data byte or word is stored in RAM or peripheral storage, a code-specifying bit sequence is estimated and stored. Each fixed number of bits per word has an additional fixed number of bits to store this code.
* When the byte or word is called for reading, a code for the retrieved word is calculated according to the original algorithm and then compared to the stored byte’s extra fixed bits.
* If the codes match, the data is error free and is forwarded for processing.
* If the codes do not match, the changed bits are caught through a mathematical algorithm and the bits are immediately corrected.

–> Data is not verified during its storage period, but is tested for errors when it is requested. If required, the error correction phase follows detection. Frequent recurring errors at the same storage address indicate a permanent hardware error. In this case, the system sends the user a message, which is logged to record the error location(s).

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