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Computer Full-Form started from D

Computer Full-Form started from D

Full Form Of DDR is

(DDR) Double Data Rate

More About DDR:
–> Double data rate (DDR) is the advanced version of synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM). SDRAM waits for clock signals before responding to control inputs. DDR uses both the falling and rising edges of the clock signal. The difference between SDRAM and DDR is not the speed, but rather how many times data is transmitted with each cycle. DDR transfers data twice per clock cycle, whereas SDRAM sends signals once per clock cycle. The same frequencies are used for both. However, DDR uses both edges of the clock, whereas SDRAM uses only one. DDR is outdated but is still in use, such as for the output of analog-to-digital converters. Updated DDR versions are DDR2 and DDR3.

–> DDR is also known as dual pumped rate, double pumped rate or double transition rate.


Full Form Of DDR-SDRAM is

(DDR-SDRAM) Double Data Rate – Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory

More About DDR-SDRAM:
–> Double data rate synchronous dynamic random access memory (DDR SDRAM) is a type of random-access memory module that allows for higher transfer rates and faster performance compared to earlier RAM modules. DDR SDRAM transfers memory on both the rising edge and falling edge of a clock cycle, doubling the transfer rate. This is where the name “double data rate” comes from.

–> DDR SDRAM works on the principle of transferring data on both the rising edge of a clock cycle and the falling edge. While most people might perceive a computer’s clock cycle as a discrete event in time, electronically it is a wave, typically a square wave. This wave has a rising edge and a falling edge. Typical RAM only transmits data on the rising edge, but SDRAM transfers data on the falling edge, which allows it to transfer more data in a clock cycle, doubling the performance of a chip. This is called “double pumping.” DDR can transfer data at a rate of up to 1600 MB/s.

–> DDR SDRAM modules have complex circuitry to maintain this timing, using phase-locked loops to keep the timing accurate. DDR has been supplanted by DDR2, DDR3 and DDR4. None of these standards are forward or backward compatible, so motherboards with one type of DDR can only use RAM modules that support that standard.


Full Form Of DIMM is

(DIMM) Dual Inline Memory Module

More About DIMM:
–> Dual In-Line Memory Module, DIMM is a module containing a circuit board and one more random access memory chips. DIMMs have a 168-pin connector and, from the advent of the Pentium processor, a 64-bit path. Because of the new bit path, DIMMs can be installed one at a time, unlike SIMMs that would require installation in pairs.

–> SO-DIMM, which is short for small outline dual in-line memory module, is available in both a 72-pin and 144-pin configuration. SO-DIMMs are commonly utilized in laptop computers.

[Some of the advantages DIMMs have over SIMMs]
* DIMMs have separate contacts on each side of the board, which provides twice as much data as a single SIMM.
* The command address and control signals are buffered on the DIMMs. With heavy memory requirements, this buffering reduces the loading effort of the memory.


Full Form Of DPI is

(DPI) Dots Per Inch

More About DPI:
–> DPI stands for Dots Per Inch. It is a measure of the density of a print or video image, i.e., the number of dots that can be placed in a line within a distance of 1 inch or 2.54 cm. Technically it means printer dots per inch.

–> In computers, DPI refers to a measure of the sharpness on a display screen, and in printing, it is a measure of printed image quality on the paper or the printer resolution, which indicates the number of ink dots that a printer can place in one square inch. The more dots per inch, the higher the resolution.

–> DPI is widely used to evaluate the quality of digital photo printing and to indicate the quality of the printer. The number of different colored dots which can fit into a one-inch space provides information about the resolution of an image. So, the resolution of the printer or a scanner is measured in dots per inch. For example, a printer with a resolution of 400 means it has 400 dots in a row across as well as in a row down. If the dots are more per inch, the space between dots will be less, and thus color droplets could mix easily to produce high-quality images. So, the dots printed by a printer should be close enough to form a photo. The closer they are, the sharper the image, so the DPI should be high if you want to print clear and sharp images.


Full Form Of DVD is

(DVD) Digital Versatile Disc

More About DVD:
–> DVD stands for Digital Versatile Disc. It is commonly known as Digital Video Disc. It is a digital optical disc storage format used to store high-capacity data like high-quality videos and movies. It is also used to store the operating system. It is invented and developed by 4 companies named Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995. DVDs provide higher storage capacity than CDs( compact discs) and can be played in multiple types of players like DVD players.

[DVD Storage Capacity]
On the basis of storage capacity, DVD can be divided in 4 types.
* Single-sided, Single layer – 4.7 gb
* Single-sided, Double layer – 8.5 gb to 8.7 gb
* Double-sided, Single layer – 9.4 gb
* Double-sided, Double layer – 17.08 gb

[Physical measurements of a DVD]
A DVD comes in two dimensions.
12 cm (120 mm): It is the most common size and generally used for storing software, movies, and operating system etc.
8 cm (80 mm): This size of DVDs are generally used for small devices like portable music player and video camera etc.


Full Form Of DBMS is

(DBMS) Database Management System

More About DBMS:
–> A database management system (DBMS) is a software package designed to define, manipulate, retrieve and manage data in a database. A DBMS generally manipulates the data itself, the data format, field names, record structure and file structure. It also defines rules to validate and manipulate this data


Full Form Of DFD is

(DFD) Data Flow Diagram

More About DFD:
–> A data-flow diagram (DFD) is a way of representing a flow of a data of a process or a system (usually an information system). The DFD also provides information about the outputs and inputs of each entity and the process itself. A data-flow diagram has no control flow, there are no decision rules and no loops.


Full Form Of DNS is

(DNS) Domain Name System

More About DNS:
–> DNS stands for Domain Name System. The internet world is completely based on IP (Internet Protocol) address. To access any website you need to know its IP address which is a long numeric code and is not possible to learn. Now, here comes the role of DNS. A DNS is an internet service that translates a domain name into corresponding IP address. Domain name used here is alphabetic and can be easily remembered.

–> For example, www.example.com is a domain name of a site. And with the help of DNS it will get translate into its IP address 198.105.232.4.

[How DNS works]

–> DNS works with the help of DNS servers. When a user enters the domain name into the web browser, the request goes to the DNS server. The DNS server determines the IP address using a look-up table. Then it sends the requested information to user?s web browser through proper servers.

–> Furthermore, a DNS system has its own network. If one DNS server does not know how to translate a particular domain name, it will ask another server, then another server, and so on, until they find out the correct IP address. A DNS server holds a list of all IP addresses along with its domain names, which can be retrieved when required.


Full Form Of DSL is

(DSL) Digital Subscriber Line

More About DSL:
–> DSL stands for Digital Subscriber Line. DSL is a communication medium used to transfer high speed internet over standard copper wire telecommunication line. DSL offers the best cost, connectivity and services over other internet access types like broadband.

–> Data transfer and telephone conversation can be done simultaneously over a DSL. Over the ‘voiceband’ frequency range, voice signal is transmitted using low frequencies (0Hz to 4kHz). While digital signals are transmitted through high frequencies (25kHz to 1.5MHz). To make sure that phone call does not get interrupted by high frequencies, DSL filters or splitters are used.

[Types of DSL]

SDSL: Symmetric DSL provides equal bandwidth for both uploading and downloading and is mostly preferred by small organizations.
ADSL: Asymmetric DSL. Most users download more data then they upload, for this they use ADL. In this, downstream speed is much more than upstream. Uploading capacity may not work as good as downloading capacity. Users who do not upload that much in comparison to downloading can use ASDL. It may offer as high as 20 Mbps speed for downloading while for uploading 1.5 Mbps.
HDSL: It is high bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line. It is a wideband digital transmission which is used within a corporate site and between the telephone company and its customers. It is a symmetrical line, offers equal bandwidth in both directions.
RADSL: It is Rate-Adaptive DSL. In this DSL technology, the modem is capable of adjusting bandwidth and operating speed to maximize the data transfer. It supports both symmetrical and asymmetrical applications with variable speeds.
VDSL: It is very high data rate DSL. It is a developing DSL technology that offers more reliable internet experience than basic broadband. It offers much higher data transfer rate over short distances, e.g. 50 to 55 Mbps over lines up to 300 meters in length.


Full Form Of DRAM is

(DRAM) Dynamic Random Access Memory

More About DRAM:
–> Stands for “Dynamic Random Access Memory.” DRAM is a type of RAM that stores each bit of data on a separate capacitor. This is an efficient way to store data in memory, because it requires less physical space to store the same amount of data than if it was stored statically. Therefore, a DRAM chip can hold more data than an SRAM (static RAM) chip of the same size can. However, the capacitors in DRAM need to constantly be refreshed to keep their charge, so DRAM requires more power than SRAM.

–> Still, because DRAM can hold more data than SRAM and because it is significantly less expensive to manufacture, DRAM is the most common type of memory found in personal computer systems. While there are many types of DRAM available, the most common type is synchronous DRAM SDRAM, which is a faster version of standard DRAM. This is the type of memory most computers use for their main system memory.


Full-Form Of DOS is

(DOS) Disk Operating System Or Denial Of Service

More About DOS:
–> Stands for “Disk Operating System.” DOS was the first operating system used by IBM-compatible computers. It was originally available in two versions that were essentially the same, but marketed under two different names. “PC-DOS” was the version developed by IBM and sold to the first IBM-compatible manufacturers. “MS-DOS” was the version that Microsoft bought the rights to, and was bundled with the first versions of Windows.

–> DOS uses a command line, or text-based interface, that allows the user to type commands. By typing simple instructions such as pwd (print working directory) and cd (change directory), the user can browse the files on the hard drive, open files, and run programs. While the commands are simple to type, the user must know the basic commands in order to use DOS effectively (similar to Unix). This made the operating system difficult for novices to use, which is why Microsoft later bundled the graphic-based Windows operating system with DOS.

–> The first versions of Windows (through Windows 95) actually ran on top of the DOS operating system. This is why so many DOS-related files (such as .INI, .DLL, and .COM files) are still used by Windows. However, the Windows operating system was rewritten for Windows NT (New Technology), which enabled Windows to run on its own, without using DOS. Later versions of Windows, such as Windows 2000, XP, and Vista, also do not require DOS.

–> DOS is still included with Windows but is run from the Windows operating system instead of the other way around. The DOS command prompt can be opened in Windows by selecting “Run…” from the Start Menu and typing cmd.


Full Form Of DMA is

(DMA) Direct Memory Access

More About DMA:
–> Stands for “Direct Memory Access.” DMA is a method of transferring data from the computer’s RAM to another part of the computer without processing it using the CPU. While most data that is input or output from your computer is processed by the CPU, some data does not require processing, or can be processed by another device. In these situations, DMA can save processing time and is a more efficient way to move data from the computer’s memory to other devices.

–> For example, a sound card may need to access data stored in the computer’s RAM, but since it can process the data itself, it may use DMA to bypass the CPU. Video cards that support DMA can also access the system memory and process graphics without needing the CPU. Ultra DMA hard drives use DMA to transfer data faster than previous hard drives that required the data to first be run through the CPU.

–>In order for devices to use direct memory access, they must be assigned to a DMA channel. Each type of port on a computer has a set of DMA channels that can be assigned to each connected device. For example, a PCI controller and a hard drive controller each have their own set of DMA channels.


Full Form Of DLT is

(DLT) Digital Linear Tape

More About DLT:
–> Digital Linear Tape, DLT is a technology initially developed by Digital who later sold the technology to Quantum. DLT helps address storage capacity and access time when backing up information to tape drives by increasing the total capacity and speed of the tape drive and disks.

–> SDLT, or super digital linear tape, is a variant of DLT that was developed later, doubling the capacity of disks and allowing up to 300 GB to be stored.


Full Form Of DIP is

(DIP) Dual Inline Package

More About DIP:
–> In microelectronics, a dual in-line package (DIP or DIL), or dual in-line pin package (DIPP) is an electronic component package with a rectangular housing and two parallel rows of electrical connecting pins. The package may be through-hole mounted to a printed circuit board (PCB) or inserted in a socket.


Full Form Of DIMM is

(DIMM) Dual Inline Memory Module

More About DIMM:
–> DIMM (dual in-line memory module) is a type of computer memory that is natively 64 bits, enabling fast data transfer. DIMM is a module that contains one or several random access memory (RAM) chips on a small circuit board with pins that connect it to the computer motherboard. The DIMM stores each data bit in a separate memory cell. DIMMs use a 64-bit data path, since processors used in personal computers have a 64-bit data width. DIMMs are typically used in desktop PCs, laptops, printers and other devices.

–> A SIMM (single in-line memory module) typically has a 32 data bit (36 bits counting parity bits) path to the computer that requires a 72-pin connector. For synchronous dynamic RAM (SDRAM) chips, which have a 64 data bit connection to the computer, SIMMs must be installed in in-line pairs, since each one supports a 32-bit path. A single DIMM can be used instead. Originally, a DIMM had a 168-pin connector to support 64-bit data transfer.

–> As faster dynamic random access memory (DRAM) was developed, DIMM circuit boards evolved. Modern DIMMs based on double data rate fourth generation (DDR4) SDRAM chips use 288-pin connectors to attach to the computer motherboard to enable the increase in data throughput. As clock speeds of the RAM chips increased, the 64-bit path handled increasing amounts of data.

–> Another evolution in DIMMs is the use of cooling fins or structures attached directly to the DIMM. The increase in chip density in typical 8 GB or 16 GB DIMMS, and the increase in clock speed, led to an increase in heat production. This was made worse by the fact that DIMMs based on DDR4 RAM chips can be produced in capacities up to 64 GB.

–>Cooling structures on the DIMM help vent that heat into the computer enclosure and away from the motherboard and CPU.


Full Form Of DHCP is

(DHCP) Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

More About DHCP:
–> DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). It is also known as RFC 2131. It is a network protocol that allows a server to automatically assign an IP address from a specified range of numbers (a scope) to a computer or device when it is connected to a given network. So, it is a protocol for assigning dynamic IP addresses to devices on a network. DHCP automatically permits a node or device to be configured automatically, so a network administrator is not required.

[What Does DHCP Do?]

* It controls the establishment of all the devices added to the network or dropped from the network.

* It maintains the IP address of the host through a DHCP server.

* It informs the DHCP server when a node or client, which is configured to work with DHCP, is added to the network. The server responds by providing an IP address to the client/node.

[How DHCP Works?]

–> In small businesses or small networks, the router acts as a DHCP server. Whereas, in large networks, a single computer may act as the DHCP server. In simple words, a device or client requests an IP address from the router or host, which assigns an IP address available at that moment to the client to enable it to communicate on the network.

–> So, when a device is connected to a DHCP server, it sends a request to the server, called a DHCPDISCOVER request. After receiving the request, the server finds an IP address for the device and offers it to the client with a DHCPOFFER packet.

–> After receiving the offer, the device responds to the DHCP server with a DHCPREQUEST packet to show that it agrees to accept it. After that, the server confirms by sending an ACK (acknowledgment) that this IP address has been provided to this device and also specifies the duration for which the device can use the address before getting a new IP address. If the server cannot provide or does not have an IP address for the device, it will send a NACK (negative acknowledgment).


Full Form Of DFS is

(DFS) Distributed File System

More About DFS:
–> Stands for “Distributed File System.” A DFS manages files and folders across multiple computers. It serves the same purpose as a traditional file system, but is designed to provide file storage and controlled access to files over local and wide area networks.

–> Even when files are stored on multiple computers, DFS can organize and display the files as if they are stored on one computer. This provides a simplified interface for clients who are given access to the files. Users can also share files by copying them to a directory in the DFS and can update files by editing existing documents. Most distributed file systems provide concurrency control or file locking, which prevents multiple people from editing the same file at the same time.

–> There are several types of DFSes, though some of the most common implementations include Server Message Block (SMB), Apple Filing Protocol (AFP), and Microsoft’s Distributed File System (often called “MS-DFS” or simply “DFS”). DFS is included as a standard component of Windows Server, while SMB is typically installed on Linux machines.


Full Form Of DC is

(DC) Direct Current

More About DC:
–> DC can also be abbreviated as Direct Current. Direct current can be defined as electric charges (electrons) flowing in one single direction, i.e. from an area of negative charge to an area of positive charge through a conductor like a metal wire. The intensity of the current may vary but the direction remains the same. It is produced by sources such as DC generators, batteries, solar cells and power supplies. When you will draw a DC graph, it will look like a flat line. DC is used to charge batteries and work as power supply for electronic devices and is mostly used in low voltage applications. It was the first power to be transmitted commercially, but now it has been widely replaced by AC current.

–> To convert AC to DC we use rectifier, and to convert DC to AC we use inverter.

[Advantages]
* Most equipments are generally more efficient when powered from DC.
* Less risk of electric shocks when voltage is below 48 Volts.
* Over long distances, DC transmission line can transmit more power with less electricity losses. It also improves efficiency and lowers the transmission cost.
* DC transmission lines require less land, narrow supporting structure (smaller footprints) as compared to AC lines.


Full Form Of DC is

(DC) Data Compression

More About DC:
–> DC stands for Data Compression. DC is a digital signal process in which data to be transmitted is compressed to reduce the storage amount in bits. In other words, you can say that data storage space is reduced than usual after applying DC. Data transmission greatly reduces data storage space and transmission capacity. It is also known as source coding or bit-rate reduction. Database management system, backup utilities, etc use data compression method widely. There are many file compression methods but ZIP and ARC are mostly known file formats.

[Two Parts of DC]
Lossy: In lossy compression method, some part of data is deleted or lost. Because it identifies and then delete the unnecessary information before transmission.
Lossless: In lossless compression method, compression is done through identifying and eliminating any statistical redundancy. For instance, when we encode a data source before transmitting it, its size is effectively reduced and data also remains intact and unchanged.


Full Form Of DB-9 is

(DB-9) 9 Pin D Shell Connector

More About DB-9:
–> The term “DB9” refers to a common connector type, one of the D-Subminiature or D-Sub types of connectors. DB9 has the smallest “footprint” of the D-Subminiature connectors, and houses 9 pins (for the male connector) or 9 holes (for the female connector).


Full Form Of DB-25 is

(DB-25) Serial Communication D-Shell Connector, 25 Pins

More About DB-25:
–> DB-25 is part of the D-subminiature (D-Sub) connector plug and socket family for computer and communication devices. DB-25 is a 25-pin electrical connector for serial and parallel computer ports. It is arranged in rows of two with one 13-pin row above another 12-pin row.


Full Form Of DAC is

(DAC) Discretionary Access Control

More About DAC:
–> Discretionary access control (DAC) is a type of security access control that grants or restricts object access via an access policy determined by an object’s owner group and/or subjects. DAC mechanism controls are defined by user identification with supplied credentials during authentication, such as username and password. DACs are discretionary because the subject (owner) can transfer authenticated objects or information access to other users. In other words, the owner determines object access privileges.

–> In DAC, each system object (file or data object) has an owner, and each initial object owner is the subject that causes its creation. Thus, an object’s access policy is determined by its owner.

–> A typical example of DAC is Unix file mode, which defines the read, write and execute permissions in each of the three bits for each user, group, and others.

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