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Ames BN, Atamna H, Killilea DW. Mineral and vitamin deficiencies can accelerate the mitochondrial decay of aging. Mol Aspects Med. 2005;26(4-5):363-378.


Atamna, H. (2004). Heme, iron, and the mitochondrial decay of ageing. Ageing research reviews, 3(3), 303-318.


Atamna H, Killilea DW, Killilea AN, Ames BN. Heme deficiency may be a factor in the mitochondrial and neuronal decay of aging. Proc Nat Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99(23):14807-14812


Chen, P., Soares, A. M., Lima, A. A., Gamble, M. V., Schorling, J. B., Conway, M., … & Guerrant, R. L. (2003). Association of vitamin A and zinc status with altered intestinal permeability: analyses of cohort data from northeastern Brazil. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 309-315.


Gendler, P. L., Duhan, H. A., & Rapoport, H. (1978). Hemopyrrole and kryptopyrrole are absent from the urine of schizophrenics and normal persons. Clinical chemistry, 24(2), 230-233.


Jacobson, S. J., Rapoport, H., & Ellman, G. L. (1975). The nonoccurrence of hemo-and kryptopyrrole in urine of schizophrenics. Biological psychiatry, 10(1), 91.


Johnson, C (2015). Pyroluria – Real Disorder or Figment? A Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Inquiry. Blog post May 25, 2015.


Larson, J. M. (2001). Depression-free, Naturally: 7 Weeks to Eliminating Anxiety, Despair, Fatigue, and Anger from Your Life. Wellspring/Ballantine.


Mahmood, A., Fitzgerald, A. J., Marchbank, T., Ntatsaki, E., Murray, D., Ghosh, S., & Playford, R. J. (2007). Zinc carnosine, a health food supplement that stabilises small bowel integrity and stimulates gut repair processes. Gut, 56(2), 168-175.


McGinnis, W. R., John McLaren-Howard DSc, F. A. C. N., Lewis, A., Lauda, P. H., & Lietha, R. (2008a) Discerning the mauve factor, part 1. Alternative therapies in health and medicine, 14(2), 40.


McGinnis, W. R., John McLaren-Howard DSc, F. A. C. N., Lewis, A., Lauda, P. H., & Lietha, R. (2008b) Discerning the mauve factor, part 2 Alternative therapies in health and medicine, 14(3), p50-56.


Natural Insight. Pyroluria – A Hidden Disorder. (Blog updated July 21, 2016)


Pfeiffer C, Sohler A, Jenney CH, Iliev V. (1974) Treatment of Pyroluric Schizophrenia (Malvaria) With Large Doses of Pyridoxine and a Dietary Supplement of Zinc ORTHOMOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY, VOLUME 3, NUMBER 4, 1974, Pp. 292 – 300


Ranjekar PK, Hinge A, Hegde MV, et al. Decreased antioxidant enzymes and mem-brane essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in schizophrenic and bipolar mood disor-der patients. Psychiatry Res. 2003;121(2):109122.


Rodriguez P, Darmon N, Chappuis P, et al. (1996) Intestinal paracellular permeability during malnutrition in guinea pigs: effect of high dietary zinc. Gut. 39(3):416-422.


Scott T. (2011) The anti-anxiety food solution. How the foods you eat can help you calm your anxious mind, improve your mood and end cravings. New Harbinger Publications, Inc.

Sturniolo, G. C., Fries, W., Mazzon, E., Di Leo, V., Barollo, M., & D’inca, R. (2002). Effect of zinc supplementation on intestinal permeability in experimental colitis. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 139(5), 311-315.


Sturniolo GC, Di Leo V, Ferronato A, D’Odorico A, D’Incà R. Zinc supplementation tightens “leaky gut” in Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2001;7(2):94-98.


Sukula, B. (2016). Pyroluria: Is it a Real Disease or Just a Myth? Blog post December 12, 2016.


Talty C and Dahlitz M. (2013) Pyrrole Disorder for Therapists. The Neuropsychotherapist.


Walsh, W. J., Glab, L. B., & Haakenson, M. L. (2004). Reduced violent behavior following biochemical therapy. Physiology & behavior, 82(5), 835-839.


Walsh, W. J., Isaacson, H. R., Rehman, F., & Hall, A. (1997). Elevated blood copper/zinc ratios in assaultive young males. Physiology & Behavior, 62(2), 327-329.